Analysis of active aging through cineforum: an educational experience
Universidad Pablo de Olavide (Sevilla-España).
Universidad Pablo de Olavide (Sevilla).
University of Texas at San Antonio (USA).
Presentamos la experiencia Análisis del envejecimiento activo a través del cineforum. Una experiencia educativa desarrollada en la Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla (España). Un grupo de profesorado perteneciente al ámbito de la Pedagogía Social de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales hemos llevado una experiencia de innovación educativa en la que el video-forum ha constituido la herramienta metodológica clave para potencias la autonomía de aprendizaje en los estudiantes y su capacidad de análisis. Se realizó una primera fase de diseño y planificación de la experiencia, una segunda donde se aplicó un pretest para determinar los conocimientos previos del alumnado sobre la temática que se iba a trabajar, en tercer lugar se implementó la propuesta diseñada a través de la proyección de películas y análisis de las mismas, finalmente se realizó la evaluación de la misma. La evaluación se ha realizado a través de fichas de recogida de información para la reflexión individual y grupal de los temas tratados y grupos de discusión para generar debate y recoger información precisa sobre las categorías establecidas. Al finalizar la experiencia se aplicó un postest para evaluar los aprendizajes adquiridos. Se ha confirmado la importancia del video-forum como una herramienta útil para trabajar el tema.
Fecha de recepción: 9/1/2017
Fecha de aceptación: 17/4/2017
Palabras clave: Experiencia educativa; Finitud; Envejecimiento; Género; Jubilación; Participación comunitaria
Para citar este artículo: Pérez-de-Guzmán, Victoria; Rodríguez-Díez, José Luis y Machado-Casas, Margarita (2017). Analysis of active aging through cineforum: an educational experience. Revista de Humanidades [en línea], n. 31, artículo 5, ISSN 2340-8995. Disponible en http://www.revistadehumanidades.com/articulos/142-analysis-of-active-aging-through-cineforum-an-educational-experience [Consulta: Sabado, 24 de Junio de 2017].
Abstract: In this article, we present the experiences of "The video-forum as a methodological tool: analysis of Active Ageing" developed at the Pablo de Olavide University of Seville (Spain). A group of professors from the faculty of the Social Pedagogy from the Department of Social Sciences explore educational innovation as an experience using video-forum as a key methodological tool to empower students learning autonomy and their capacity for analysis. We have created the phase of design and planning of the experience, a second phase where a pretest was applied to determine the prior knowledge of students about the subject matter, in the third phase the proposal designed was implemented through the projection and the analysis of film, finally a posttest evaluation was administered. The evaluation has been carried out through the process collection of information sheets for individual and group reflections, and discussion groups to generate debate and collect information needed on the established categories. At the end of the experience, a posttest was applied to evaluate the acquired learning. Findings have confirmed the importance of the video-forum as a useful tool to work, the results of the experiment have proven to be very positive and they have generated both.
Keywords: Educational Experience; Finitude; Aging; Gender; Retirement; Community Participation.
1. Literature review. 2. Methodological process. 3. Results from the experience of teaching innovation. 4. Conclusions. 5. Documentary sources. 6. Electronic sources.
1. LITERATURE REVIEW
The image which society builds the idea of ageing is confusing and contradictory. On one hand, in the last decades in developed countries, arises the concept of aging in a positive way with different meanings: good aging (Fries, 1989), healthy (who, 1990), competent (Fernández Ballesteros, 1996), successful (Rowe and Kann, 1987;) Baltes & Baltes, 1990), and or active (OMS, 2002a) among others. In contrast, there is a picture of exclusion based on the designation of old age such as loading, image acquired by leaving the productive role. This image is part of the stereotypes around this vital stage. Stereotypes are social constructions that are learned in childhood and are perpetuated from generation to generation. However most of them are based on primitive fears, prejudices and clichés rather than a true knowledge (Fernández-Ballesteros, 1992). Banish stereotypes and get an aging in any of the previous meanings requires an adaptation of a different learning and this should start since we are born because that "since we are born, we are called to become old" (Pérez de Guzmán, 2006: 206).
Aging must be satisfactory inthe sense of establishing patterns of activity to improve the physical and mental state, but alsothe feeling of contentment with yourself and your environment, promoting healthy aging and promote longevity (Amador & Moreno, 2006).
It is necessary to educate new generations to active ageing and finitude. We live in a situation of denial of the phenomenon of death. In schools, institutes, forming centers and universities does not speak of death. The very existence of the human being is a process of learning and learning to die should be one of them, since it involves learning to live intensely (Pedrero, 2002).
In this article we present the experience "The video-forum as a methodological tool: analysis of active ageing" developed at the Pablo de Olavide University of Seville (Spain) as an activity of the course "Education and active ageing: preparation for finiteness".
We will describe each of the dimensions:
- Autonomy versus Dependency:
In this case we are faced with two opposing conceptions, that express two completely different realities: on one hand, the ability to be worth for itself, without having to be treated or protected by one or more other persons; and on the other hand, the situation of personal helplessness that requires us to be assisted by others, as a result of a decline in physical, psychological or contextual capabilities surrounding the subject.
In today's society, it is common to find references and negative connotations linked to old age or the so-called third age. In general, this age bracket is conceived as a period of "decline" and "impairment" strongly linked to this situation of dependence that we made allusion. Television, radio, advertising and, in general, the mass communication media offer a distorted and decadent image of old age, such as stage of decline and dependence. Through education we advocate establishing old age as one of the vital process in which it continues to learn and where you can develop autonomy as a process of active ageing.
- Social participation:
We mean by participation "intervention, collaboration, cooperation, contribution..., "to take part in something". And in particular, social participation would take active role in society, in the sense of intervening in the same. Social participation is the satisfaction of different types of needs or personal fulfillment of the citizens; improvement of the conditions of life, promoting equality... And ultimately, be aware of the role that each one in the society.
Not all people know, can, and want to participate in the same way. Participation is diverse and aging of active needs to be learned; Hence the importance of forming lifelong. "Aging well is a task, a vital project capable of guiding us, gives meaning to what we do and guide us in the achievement of happiness" (Junta de Andalucía, 2010, p.216)
- Intergenerational relationships:
We live in a society in continuous changes and transformations. Intergenerational relations, i.e., the way that relate to people of different ages, are basic for the smooth functioning of our society. Since education is fostered intergenerational program design. Even though nowadays there are three trends: an elderly population that seeks opportunities to contribute and be connected with others, a need to involve people in the social pact to better fulfill our responsibilities as citizens and the general acceptance of the need for new approaches and more comprehensive to satisfy the needs of all age groups.
Intergenerational programs are projected towards a society for all ages. All people have to be able to continue contributing to the well-being and improvement of societies regardless of their age, but besides opportunities, people have to have powers and resources to exercise such participation.
Intergenerational relations should promote and increase solidarity; this solidarity serves to reconcile the ageing of the elderly with economic development. The intergenerational work can contribute to the development of human capital, social cohesion and strengthening community networks.
- Aging from the perspective of gender:
Women now make up the majority of the population sector of older persons have been educated to develop considered in his youth, "housekeeping work"; i.e., household chores, education of children, caring for sick family, etc. This situation has led them to having a low social power, and a social commitment difficult to overcome with respect to the responsibilities that were inculcated them as women. This education involves a large number of them do not realize this situation as an important gender discrimination.
There are numerous data presented to women as caregivers for elderly, sick, etc... Guiding data presented by Izal (1995, p.18) is that "eight out of every ten people who are caring for one family in our country are women between 45 and 65 years of age". We must therefore place means to allow aging of these women as independently as possible and with the highest quality of life (Amador Muñoz and Moreno Crespo, 2006)
- Preparing for retirement:
Retirement, as any other stage that occurs in our lives, can become something positive or negative, depending on how you face it. For a person who is accustomed to a work activity that structures their lives, is complicated, if you don't have an adequate preparation, adapt to the labor interruption. At the moment in which occurs this maladjustment a number of disorders can occur such as: anxiety, depression or irritability, low self-esteem, feelings of uselessness, etc.
That is why; at this stage the retired person needs educational preparation and psychological support in advance. It will be necessary to plan continued interventions to slow or reduce the negative effects that can cause the retirement, counteract the myths that exist about old age as unprofitable stage, eliminate the belief of the relationship between retirement and disease, restructuring the network of friendships, learn how to use the free time and leisure creative, active and facilitating.
- Project of life and vital crisis overcoming:
From our position, close to the quality of life and active ageing, we believe that educating for death is inseparable from educating for life, and vice versa. Even more: is the only possible and honest way of educating for life. No doubt know that one day we have to die, that our existence is finite, must not lead us or to despair or distress, but to the serenity to know live intensely every moment, because every moment of our life is unique and has value by itself, and life, for this reason, it is exciting and worthwhile living.
Having a life project can make us happy and give us reason to continue living. The evolutionary project is the means to sustain the lucidity in the lifetime and can be the vaccine to regain sanity. This is why we want to have healthy and positive projects. With this, we want to understand how the meaning of life can provide a response to the question of death and prepare us for the death of our loved ones and also for the own. The knowledge of the psychological development of children and young persons in relation to the theme of death and mourning, will allow to carry out a more serene and authentic pedagogical task. Ultimately, last goal of the pedagogy of death aims to connect life with death.
- Justification of the proposal
The importance of lifelong learning in the 70's and the creation of innovative thought in the pedagogical field, is rescued at the beginning of the 21st century, with emphasis on the facet of training people with tools that will enable them to adapt to the constant changes in the context.
According to the White Paper on Active Ageing (2010) lifelong learning means learning capacitywith people of all ages in the life cycle.
Up to the aforementioned definition, we could point out different stages in the development of the concept (Pérez Serrano, 2001):
- The World Conference on Adult Education, organized by UNESCO, which emphasize the remedialperspective. The fundamental principleis that anything that comes from school and traditional teachingcan serve adult education without a radical adaptation.
- The appearance of the Permanent Education concept, although not radically changed the traditional conceptions of adult education, if it establishes that there is no barrier between youth education and adult education.
- Education is conceived as extending over human life.
Now a days, emphasis concentrates in the individual as a protagonist in all directions, allowing the adaptation of the individual and the society as a whole, to new educational needs that emerge strengthened under the concept of lifelong learning. Thus we focus on pedagogical innovation that allows citizen to learn how to learn and rescued pedagogical authors who revolutionized the concept of teaching as Makarenko, Freire, Milani, Pestalozzi, etc.
We conclude that the adaptation required by the organizations obtained as response important pedagogical renewals, including the promotion of the role as protagonist and responsibility of students in their own learning. "The moment in which we find ourselves promotes a society of learning throughout all our lifetime, which provides response to new needs arising, and should build as a response to the new concerns and interests of the population" (Moreno Crespo, 2009, p.3)
European Convergence responds to the above approaches based on do not quantify the accumulative knowledge but the skills acquired by the students to become a good professional and a good citizen. The renewal process in higher education is the great European challenge of the 21st century, and the commitment of the University -and all those that we make it possible- is to find the balance between academic knowledge and practice. This approach paves the way for the establishment of a unit of measurement adapted to this new methodology: European Credit Transfer System (ECTS).
For all this said, the incorporation of the European Convergence in the Spanish Universities, requires a significant investment in training and recycle of teachers, as well as a clear commitment from all stakeholders.
In this way, a team of professors and teachers belonging to the Area of Theory and History of the Education of the Faculty of Social Sciences, and profesors invited of different university: Texas University, Cádiz University and Murcia University, have conducted a series of experiences of educational innovation of which we underline the Video-Forum as a methodological tool that top, the autonomy of student learning, their capacity for analysis, as well as collective learning. Meanwhile, the role of the teacher is a designer of learning situations and a catalyst of the teaching-learning process. Following this approach, it has planned an educational proposal on the transversal theme of Education and Active Ageing.
In the following lines we describe the transversal skills developed in the course that has been settled. Seeking that student will be able of:
- Acquire basic knowledge of active ageing and the pedagogy of finiteness
- Possess a clear vision of the importance of lifelong learning.
- Develop a positive attitude towards active ageing and finitude.
- Reflexing, interpret and make judgments of value on the managed issues.
- Be able to present real solutions to specific situations.
- Acquire a level of domain in oral and written language
- Develop an attitude of respect towards colleagues.
- Increase creative ability in the development of practical activities.
- Adopt a critical capacity and self-criticism perspective that allows people to analyze objectively any new situations that arise, taking into account the point of view of others and respecting the diversity of opinions.
To set out the objectives and competencies as a result of this methodological exercise, the teacher team established as reference content, the dimensions of the human being to be developed around Education and Active Ageing. These dimensions are the physical, psychological and emotional all at the same time, related to the social dimension and the spiritual dimension; "education is not a theoretical activity, but a practical activity related to the task of developing minds" (Bas, Pérez de Guzmán & Morón, 2011: 193). In the same way has been paid attention to participation, health and safety, as well as the preparation for death. In the next section will develop more widely.
The educational proposal rotates around the transverse theme of Education and Active Ageing through a methodology based on the Video-Forum. "The film has to give capital importance to the fundamental problems of the humans today, but not considered in isolation, as a particular case, but in its relations with other humans. In this way the values come into play (freedom, equality, solidarity...), to create a world in which at least communication and understanding are not unreachable utopias made by anachronistic dreamers, but realities to the fingertips, worth fighting for. Values which, on the other hand, will never have pass fashion..." (González Martel, 1996: 30).
Cinema is one of the greatest cultural discoveries of the 20th century. It is characterized by being able to influence in the lives of people, their values, modes of acting, configuration of referential identity models and on their way to capture the world and the entire human.
In addition, has the ability to reflect the global world, every detail of the reality. Bringing socio -cultural, artistic and human potential of the cinematographic fact. Thus arises as an imperative in our learning environment because it is a cultural product that facilitates the development of the personality of the spectators.
Understanding movies as a means of communication and total expression, we believe in this resource as a tool that offers variety of informational possibilities; to analyze human life, moral skills... Definitely, we consider it an indispensable educational resource for the transmission of competences, skills, communication, reflection and permanent dialogue. Not to forget that the teaching of film, must be accompanied by concepts, procedures and competences related to the inclusion of cinema and understanding from an historical, esthetic, sociocultural context and of values.
In the same way we describe what are the objectives posed by the teaching team for the development of this experience:
- Perform an analysis of the meaning of the concept of 'active ageing' and all the elements which support it.
- Develop professional skills.
- Promote communication, dialogue and debate.
- To promote the exchange of knowledge and attitudes in students around the aging process.
2. METHODOLOGICAL PROCESS
The methodological process followed in this experience is based on an approach focused on the qualitative methodology applied to social education. As said by the Professor of Social pedagogy Mrs. Perez Serrano (2000), the purpose that is considered priority of research in Social Education is the ability of transformation and change of the reality, goal that characterizes, constitutes and justifies its reason for being. For this reason, we consider it necessary when implementing research in this area (although University experiences as in this case) give special attention to the method, "on the way to carry out the action in a structured manner" (Cobos, 2007: 214); as well as to the techniques and resources to be used; also for the collection of data and its analysis; and the conclusions, aimed at the improvement and change. Because ultimately, education is what is trying to promote, improve and change processes. In the next lines, we will describe the different phases of the experience:
2.1. 1st phase: Design and pacification of the educational experience.
In this first phase arise the idea of using the video-forum tool with the students of the Faculty of Social Sciences to address issues that tend not to be able to contemplate in depth within core and compulsory subjects in the curricula of Social Education or Social Work.
In the way of a resultant research thematic as it is the Pedagogy of Finitude, raises the possibility of incorporating it into the hot theme of Active Ageing. After several drafts where they combined both thematic, we arrived at the establishment of the vertebral dimensions of the content of the course.
Initially we produced the draft of the Educational Guide as Configurator of the instruments and the methodology used: In this process, various drafts were developed during the months of June to September 2010, these first sketches undergo a process of constant revision of the teaching staff, to define the methodological instruments considered most appropriate, as well as another series of evaluation instruments that would allow us to rethink the innovative experience.
In these early days were clear two areas on which rotate the experience: the Active Ageing and the Pedagogy of Finitude, on them brake down up to a total of six dimensions, which we consider key to work in depth both themes.
Once selected the themes, we have developed an instrument for the evaluation of knowledge and previous ideas about them, in order that the students attending the course to fill it before the first session. The purpose of applying this type of qualitative test, following a quasi-experimental design, was to know the ideas and previous attitudes that students have in relation to the aging process as well as the multiple dimensions treated in the course.
The test consisted of nine open questions, which we shall explain below:
1. What is for you the active ageing?
2. What is for you quality of life?
3. What do you understand by Preparation for Finiteness?
4. Do you think that intergenerational relations are important? Why?
5. What you understand by social participation?
6. Do you think that a person can be autonomous and dependent at the same time? Why?
7. Do you think that men and women age in the same way? Why?
8. What do you understand by retirement?
9. What you considered vital crisis?
Once the educational activity was over, we reapply the instrument to describe the possible changes in the ideas and attitudes of students, following thus a structure pretest-posttest. Therefore we ensured carrying out an initial evaluation, where the knowledge and attitudes of students around the dimensions of the course previously to do so.
Subsequent to the selection of the themes, it was time to choose films that share relevant aspects with the treated dimensions. An analysis and deep reflection was made on a list of movies that deal with active ageing and finitude. And although they were very varied, we finally chose four of them on the basis of its greater thematic affinity with shafts described above. The films selected were: Fried green tomatoes, At the Golden Pond, The gift and In the city without limits. From each movie we perform a debate card that would serve as a didactic instrument from the video-forum. Each tab shared a similar structure:
- Movie name and day of viewing
- Brief summary
- Which are the Central dimensions of the movie (select the two dimensions more discussed in the plot of the movie)
- Reflect on: we did indicate some aspect in which students should focus their attention
- Issues raised on the two reflected dimensions: will indicate the dimensions and raised a couple of questions to reflect on them.
The cards were delivered to students before the viewing of the film so they read them and focus their attention in dimensions and on the issues raised. Here we show an example of card:
CARD: ON THE GOLDEN POND
Date: February 18, 2011
Name of the participant:
Summary of the movie: Ethel and Norman Thayer are an elderly couple who spends holidays in a paradise called "Golden Pond". Norman, of active suffers with bad genius limitations of old age and the closeness of death. To the pond arrives the daughter of the Thayer, Chelsea, which has a bad relationship with Norman.
Central dimensions: Autonomy vs. Dependence and Life Project and overcoming the vital crisis.
Reflect on the character of Norman and describes his condition, keeping in mind the concept of autonomy and dependence as well as vital crisis.
Write any idea that appears in the film related to the two central dimensions.
On autonomy vs dependency (what kind of dependencies are reflected in the film. Is represented in the film that older people are more dependent than youngsters? Why?)
Life project and overcoming the vital crisis(how affects the life project to preparation for death...).
Table 1. Example of tab. Film: On Golden Pond.
At the end of September 2010 we finished the reformulation of the Teaching Guide for the course. In this teaching guide, appears described the methodological design, as well as a series of instruments that we consider best suited to respond to the formulated goals.
2.2. Phase 2: Implementation of the teaching experience.
The course consisted of five sessions, four of them dedicated to the viewing of films and discussion of the dimensions through the discussion groups and a final evaluation session.
The face-to-face process that was carried out for the development of the activity was as follows:
* From the first to the fourth session:
1. Introduction and objectives of the topic: produced the first contact with the content of the film through the card and the dimensions outlined therein.
2. Viewing of the film.
3. Discussion: Use of the Discussion Group as a methodological and didactic tool. Once you have viewing the film, students distributed in groups to discuss in the discussion groups around two main dimensions which have been developed in the tab of each film.
4. Conclusions and socio-educational proposals. They arrived at agreements and proposals about the worked ideas in each session.
*Regard to the fifth and final session:
1. Distribution in small groups for the completion of the evaluation card and place in common the self-work in the little group.
2. Each group will draw aspects deemed most relevant on active ageing and the pedagogy of finitude; as well as concrete proposals to put them into action in their daily lives.
3. Place in common in the large group.
4. General conclusions.
Then the final evaluation sheet of teaching experience is as follows:
TAB: REFLECTIONS AND FINAL DEBATE
Date: March 18, 2011
Name of the participant:
Working Dynamics :
In this first part of the last session we work in small groups, making a general reflection on what you have learned throughout this course.
Think about what it means each of the Central Dimensions that we have worked throughout the course, and if there are changes regarding what you thought before starting the course.
1. What key concepts have you learned?
-Autonomy and dependence:
- Preparing for retirement
- Aging from the perspective of gender
- Life project and overcoming the vital crisis
2. What has this course brought to you on a personal level?
3 Do you think that this course has brought to your professional future?
4. Add any comment that you think can contribute to improve the course.
Table 2. Final evaluation card.
2.3. 3rd Stage: Evaluation of the teaching experience.
The evaluation of the activity will be carried out through different sources of information and evaluation collected. We find the collected instruments of evaluation (pretest, posttest), tab of each of the films, reflections and conclusions of the last session of debate, as well as works produced by students. Therefore we have a wide range of information to analyze and process to assess the teaching experience carried out during the academic year.
2. 4. Pretest and post-test analysis
Relating to their active aging concept,in the pretest the majority of the student body analyze this concept from a personal development; however, in the post-test the community vision and the social participation becomes more relevant. The concept of old age is very well present in the subjects before taking this course, and, after this, they focus much more in the aging process. Words like: autonomy, independence, social participation or interaction are highlighted. The physical, psychological and social dimensions of the person are well mentioned, within the concept of maintaining an equilibrium in order to get and keep a personal and social wellbeing.
(Pre-test): "Its about a process that consists of the improving of the quality of life of older people, for that, it pretends to get the best physical, psychological and social wellbeing".
(Post-test): "Active aging is the process where (one) is capable to take advantage in the best possible way, of all the opportunities within your reach with the goal to improve your social wellbeing and quality of life. For this to happen, it is necessary an active and participative involvement in society, in culture...)"
(Pre-test): "active aging in my opinion, is the stage where in spite of everybody having to go through, is a stage in which the person knows he or she are aging being conscious of it. Also making conscious efforts to be prepared for this new stage. As everything in the life of a human being is another step to follow, a moment to be ready for, where we have to have a clear understanding of the resources available to us and those we will be missing"
(Post-test): "In my opinion, active aging is a way of getting old in an active way, lets say a person finds him or herself participating in the society around them. Is the way in which all person should opt of, to get, a better self fulfilment and how to be in society"
If we focus on the quality of life concept, this has not deviated significantly after going through the course; if any, they have learned to define it with more clarity. The subjectivity of the term is evidenced, as well as the relationship with the aspects of lifes satisfactions; health, social interactions, economy, etc.
(Pre-test): "For me, the quality of life starts from a very simple foundation: Happiness. Being at ease and content in every moment, with every daily decision, in being honest with one-self and learn to have a positive view in life. It is a very subjective term, tied to the individual priorities of each of us. In any way, we must never directly make it corresponding with economic prosperity".
(Post-test): "Quality of life, in general terms, is the individual wellbeing, or his or her levels of satisfaction. It is a very subjective concept and it is related in the first place with health. But not only with physical health, but also with mental health of a psychological state (happiness, life expectations, anticipations, etc.). In second place, there are a series of dimensions that directly influence the quality of life, like social interactions or the interactions with the surrounding environment".
Analyzing the two pointed terms, it is visualized that students begin to differentiate and connect with more clarity the concepts of active aging and quality of life.
It was asked also about what they understood for "Preparation to finitude", they highlight the importance of seeing death as part of life, to maximize life enjoying it and taking as much of it as they possible can in any given moment.
(Pretest): "They are the attitudes that people take in relation with the end of life and all their thoughts, behaviors and activities that indicates to feel close to death or close to dying"
(Post -test): "Is the Education to take consciousness that we, as vital entities, have an end, which implies that we must live it in a natural way and to not have it occupy the majority of our thoughts"
Both before beginning the course, and after finishing it, they understand the importance of intergenerational relationships and what they could contribute. The way to define it does change since is noted that after doing the course they use the learned terminology.
(Pre-test): "The intergenerational relationships are more important than we can imagine. The mutual enrichment that two people from different ages would contribute to each other is undeniable. What I mean is the experience that a grandfather shares with his grandson, as the breath of youth that the grandson transmits to his grandfather. It is not necessary to us a classic example. Lets think in the relationship between a teacher and his six year old students and vice versa. Everyone learn from each other, the set of knowledge makes us exercise our mind, and that is where the ´quid´ of the question is".
(Post-test): "The intergenerational relationships are fundamental of an active aging, since each generation has important things to contribute to the other one and is reciprocal. In the case of older adults, these relationships get a major importance due to allowing personal acceptance and allowing social participation, which is fundamental to carry out an active aging".
Regarding of what is social participation to them in this life stage, it is clear the importance of the society of where we are living. There are groups (associations, volunteers ...) that empower and create connections between people.
(Pre-test): "Refers to all the efforts of the community, private and public associations to perform some activity or to reach some goals"
(Post-test): "It is the action which makes us participate in the process improvement of services dedicated to the social welfare and the improvement of the quality of life of the different groups that make our society. This participation can be carried out in many ways, such as volunteering, financial aid, project realization, fundraise, etc. It covers each and every one of the actions that involve helping, along with others, additional people".
Regarding if they consider that a person can be autonomous and dependent at the same time, after the instrument analysis it is clearly seen that everyone considers that any person can be autonomous in some facets of his life and dependent in others.
In relation to whether man or woman grow old in the same way, it is clear that is not. It has been decisive the discrimination between genders and the allocation of social and family roles.
(Pre-test): "Men and women do not age in the same way due to each gender having an implicit society role that correspond with it when talking about aging"
(Post-test): "In addition to physical aging due to genetic and hormonal differences, in terms of gender roles each will age, within the individual variety, differently"
Regarding of what they understand by retirement,in the pre-test they simply define it as the cessation of the work stage. Although, in the post-test they see it as an additional phase of many people lives where they have plenty of free time to invest in leisure time and not idleness.
(Pre-test): "It is the life stage that supposes the cessation of working life".
(Post-test): "The labor cessation in the life of people that requires a prior adaptation and a life project to develop after it"
The last question centered on defining what the vital crisis is. Most of them see it as the time when changes occur in a person´s life. In the pre-test is clearly seen that the vision is more negative, while in the post-test is analyzed as a part of life to be faced positively, since we live continually changes and adaptations. We must learn to cope with fear of change, since occurs throughout the life cycle.
(Pre-test): "A crisis that we can almost never cope with and it costs us a lot to overcome".
(Post-test): "A crisis to which is very possible that we will be involved in our life and which we have to face whether we want it or not".
3. RESULTS FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF TEACHING INNOVATION.
Throughout the chapter we have been developing concepts on which we have worked during the year and that have served us as the basis to analyze the information collected through the methodological process defined above.
In this section we will highlight the most relevant results of the final questionnaire. For this, we have selected three of the most relevant items that provide an general overview of the treated dimensions. The selected items are:
1º) what is active aging?
2º) what is quality of life?
3º) what is the Preparation for Finiteness?
From these three issues we have done an analysis of the content of the answers and had to reflect the results we get from them:
In relation to the first question about what they believe is being active ageing: students focus on their responses that it is about enhance participation, activity and the quality of life or well-being is as well as the positive attitude towards this new stage. Other aspects that stand out is that aging is a process in which there are changes, adaptations, and also losses. As well as take advantage of the different aspects and opportunities of life. Similarly, they remark that should be healthy aging in which are engaged multiple factors that guarantee at the same, time as an individual process.
In the second question, they think that the concept of quality of life is linked to the coverage of the needs or to have the resources to get it. They Highlights the relationship between satisfaction, self-fulfillment, healthy living and wellness with the concept of quality of life. They recognize that it's a subjective concept linked to personal fulfilment and takes our attention that when related to social, physical and psychological levels of the society or the individual, they include interaction with the environment.
Regarding the question of preparation for the finitude, students answer to this question almost in a unanimous way in preparing for the finitude supposed to prepare people for the end, to face the more difficult life stage positively, at the same time that we realized that we are finite beings and therefore all are going to die. Some students mentioned that this formulation would eliminate the fear of death and considered it important to take this taboo, which prepare for finiteness implies acceptance of death as one part of life. Minority, they do mention that this education for death should occur from childhood to overcome the fear of death from the earliest stages of life, as well as to help carry on with losses and duels.
The conclusions are that the program's success has depended on much of the programming and planning, which has facilitated coordination between all the teachers as well as the subsequent discussions at the film forum.
In relation to the contents of the video-forum, we can say that currently our society faces at the beginning of this century, important challenges generated by new ways of growing old and dying. For the professionals in education and health will not only be necessary to improve their knowledge, skills and attitudes for optimal resolution of these conflicts, but will have to develop other skills needed to do this, such as the communication, emotional and narrative skills. The teaching of this kind of competencies in Education for the Finitude and the Active Aging in the curricula of the faculties of social sciences in Spain is irregular and uneven, since not in all faculties it is present (whether to a greater or lesser degree), and is often an elective class , as it was our case. The picture does not look homogenized with the reform proposed by the European Space of Higher Education. Therefore, it is necessary to join efforts to raise a transversal formation in this type of skills that facilitate the acquisition of this from the students.
Regarding common narrative pedagogical tools, the movies are considered as key instruments in the emotional education of our time. The film is a useful teaching resource for several reasons, lets know rare realities and different from our own; and at the same time it offers elements of critical analysis and approaches to conflicts in a problematic view, not closed or dogmatic. The images offered in each film, challenge the viewer's directly, instantaneously and with a great power to provoke empathic reactions because films possess a great impression of reality, bigger than the literary texts. Therefore the film in the classroom enables students to see the suffering and relief which sometimes generates the early aging, dependence, disease and nearby death, with a certain emotional distance, while you can engage to empathize with seen and heard. The academic environment is a safe environment where enables students to recognize and name their own emotions and find adaptive answers to face them. It also offers a reflection environment, a calm space for ethical and moral reflection that acquires and develops essential resolution of conflicts or communication skills.
The use of film in the University classroom is usually very well valued by students, and in this case they let us know by the final evaluation questionnaires, since has developed a methodology rarely used in university classrooms at the same time this topics that are usually not present in the classic textbooks, or not have been worked in the official curricula. On the other hand, we consider it necessary to promote the use of new technologies (forums, wikis) to extend and share this type of educational experience.
Finally, we want to indicate that the present proposal intends to facilitate the prior work of teaching planning, as well as the improvement of evaluation tools in behave of this experience, because it can be adapted to other subjects. We believe that this is an interesting line of research- action to be developed as a teaching application and in which we are going to continue working.
5. DOCUMENTARY SOURCES
Amador Muñoz, L. & Moreno Crespo, A. (2006). Aging and quality of life in university programs. Majors In the University: right, need, satisfaction, Digital magazine, 200-208.
Bas Peña, E.; Pérez de Guzmán, M. V. & Morón Marchena, A. (2011). Adicción y exclusión social: intervención educativa. En Amador Muñoz, L.V. & Musitu Ochoa, G. Exclusión social y diversidad. México: Trilla, p. 193220.
Cobos, D. (2007). Reflexiones sobre la investigación educativa. Escuela Abierta, 10, 213-221.
González- Martel, J. (1996). El cine en el universo de la ética. El cine-forum. Madrid: Alauda. Anaya.
Hernández Pedreño, M. (2000). Desigualdades según género en la vejez. Murcia: CARM, Consejería de Presidencia.
Izal Fernández de Troconiz, M. & all (1995). Cuando las personas mayores necesitan ayuda: guía para cuidadores y familiares. Madrid: Instituto de Mayores y Servicios Sociales.
Junta de Andalucía (2010). Libro Blanco del Envejecimiento Activo. Sevilla: Junta de Andalucía, Consejería para la Igualdad y el Bienestar Social.
Martín-Bermúdez, N. Pérez de Guzmán Puya, M.V. y Pérez-Pérez, I. (2011). Educación a lo largo de toda la vida. Una respuesta ante la crisis. En V Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo La Cooperación Universitaria al Desarrollo ante los retos de un mundo en crisis. Cádiz: Universidad de Cádiz, 1 12.
Moreno Crespo, P. A. (2010). Mayores aprendizajes: envejecimiento activo. En IX Congreso Nacional de Organizaciones de Mayores. Arte de Envejecer. Madrid: CEOMA, p. 1-6.
Moreno Crespo, A. (2011). Mayores y Formación. Aprendizaje y Calidad de Vida. Tesis Doctoral (no publicada). Sevilla: Universidad Pablo de Olavide.
Pedrero, E. y Muñoz Díaz, M. C. (2008). La educación para la muerte como un reto emergente en la educación del siglo XXI: más allá de la educación para la salud. En López Noguero (Dir.) La Educación como respuesta a la diversidad. Una perspectiva comparada. Sevilla: Universidad Pablo de Olavide-Sociedad Española de Educación Comparada, p. 130-142.
Pérez de Guzmán Puya, M.V. & Cuenca Paris, E. (2010). El aprendizaje permanente en adultos mayores. En Congreso Internacional de Envejecimiento Activo. El Libro Blanco del Envejecimiento Activo de Andalucía. Sevilla: Junta de Andalucía, p. 1-16.
Pérez Serrano, M.G. (2000). Modelos de investigación cualitativa en educación social y animación sociocultural: aplicaciones prácticas. Madrid: Narcea.
Rodríguez-Díez, J.L., Amador, L.V., Pérez de Guzmán, V. & Esteban, M. (2012). Nunca es tarde para aprender. Los Programas Universitarios para Mayores. Revista Decápolis, 4, p. 60-63.
Vallejos Herrador, A. (2010). Factores que motivan la actividad de los mayores. En: IX Congreso Nacional de Organizaciones de Mayores. Arte de Envejecer. Madrid: CEOMA, p. 1-6.
6. ELECTRONIC SOURCES
Pedrero, E. (2002). The quality of life and older people. Accessed on November 15, 2014 from http://www.psicomundo.com/tiempo/
Pedrero, E. (2002). The elderly to death. Retrieved on November 20, 2014 from http://www.psiconet.com/tiempo/monografias/muerte.htm
Pérez Serrano, G. (2001). Aprender a lo largo de la vida. Desafío de la sociedad actual. Revista Ágora digital, 1, pp. 1-17, from http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=963231